Genome Property Definition Page

AccessionGenProp0147
Nameglycine betaine biosynthesis from choline
TypePATHWAY
DescriptionAs a coping mechanism against osmotic stress, prokaryotic organisms accumulate osmolytes or osmoprotectants from exogenous sources, to counterbalance elevated osmolarities in the environment without affecting overall cell metabolism and structural integrity [1]. One of the most efficient osmoprotectants found in the environment is the compound glycine betaine [1]. Both gram positive and gram negative bacteria mediate osmotolerance either by direct uptake of glycine betaine from the environment, or by synthesis from exogenously supplied choline [2,3]. This property reflects the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline [4,5]. Biosynthesis of glycine betaine occurs via a two-step oxidative reaction requiring a terminal electron acceptor [2,3]. Choline dehydrogenase first catalyzes the conversion of exogenously supplied choline into the intermediate glycine betaine aldehyde, with subsequent oxidization by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase into the osmoprotectant glycine betaine [2,3]. Both choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase are required for conversion of choline into glycine betaine [2,3].
JCVI RoleAdaptations to atypical conditions
Parent PropertyGenProp0267: osmolyte biosynthesis
GenProp0267: osmolyte biosynthesis
Literature References
[ 1 ]Csonka LN, Hanson AD.  Prokaryotic osmoregulation: genetics and physiology.  Annu Rev Microbiol. 1991;45:569-606.  PMID 1741624
[ 2 ]Andresen PA, Kaasen I, Styrvold OB, Boulnois G, Strom AR  Molecular cloning, physical mapping and expression of the bet genes governing the osmoregulatory choline-glycine betaine pathway of Escherichia coli  J Gen Microbiol. 1988 Jun;134 ( Pt 6):1737-46.  PMID 3065456
[ 3 ]Boch J, Kempf B, Schmid R, Bremer E.  Synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of the gbsAB genes.  J Bacteriol. 1996 Sep;178(17):5121-9.  PMID 8752328
[ 1 ]Csonka LN, Hanson AD.  Prokaryotic osmoregulation: genetics and physiology.  Annu Rev Microbiol. 1991;45:569-606.  PMID 1741624
[ 2 ]Andresen PA, Kaasen I, Styrvold OB, Boulnois G, Strom AR  Molecular cloning, physical mapping and expression of the bet genes governing the osmoregulatory choline-glycine betaine pathway of Escherichia coli  J Gen Microbiol. 1988 Jun;134 ( Pt 6):1737-46.  PMID 3065456
[ 3 ]Boch J, Kempf B, Schmid R, Bremer E.  Synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of the gbsAB genes.  J Bacteriol. 1996 Sep;178(17):5121-9.  PMID 8752328
Web ReferencesThe Ecocyc Database: betaine biosynthesis I
KEGG: Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
The Ecocyc Database: betaine biosynthesis I
KEGG: Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
Gene Ontology TermGO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline (biological_process)
GO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline (biological_process)
GO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline (biological_process)
GO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline (biological_process)
GO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline (biological_process)
GO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline (biological_process)

Components
Step NameStep NumRequiredEvidence (Method)Evidence Go Terms
choline dehydrogenase1_BetAYESTIGR01810 (HMM): choline dehydrogenaseGO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline
choline dehydrogenase1_BetAYESTIGR01810 (HMM): choline dehydrogenaseGO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline
glycine betaine dehydrogenase2_BetBYESTIGR01804 (HMM): betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenaseGO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline
glycine betaine dehydrogenase2_BetBYESTIGR01804 (HMM): betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenaseGO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline
choline-responsive transcriptional repressor BetIBetINOTIGR03384 (HMM): transcriptional repressor BetIGO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline
choline-responsive transcriptional repressor BetIBetINOTIGR03384 (HMM): transcriptional repressor BetIGO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline

Parent Properties
AccessionName
GenProp0267osmolyte biosynthesis
GenProp0267osmolyte biosynthesis


Sibling Properties
AccessionName
GenProp0264glucosylglycerol biosynthesis
GenProp0265trehalose biosynthesis, OtsAB pathway
GenProp0266trehalose biosynthesis, TreYZ pathway
GenProp0268ectoine biosynthesis
GenProp0281mannosylglycerate biosynthesis
GenProp0878N(epsilon)-acetyl-beta-lysine biosynthesis
GenProp1070beta-glutamate biosynthesis