Tang, H., Woodhouse, M. R., Cheng, F., Schnable, J. C., Pedersen, B. S., Conant, G. C., Wang, X., Freeling, M., Pires, J. C., Tang H, Woodhouse MR, Cheng F, Schnable JC, Pedersen BS, Conant GC, Wang X, Freeling M, Pires JC, Conant G
Altered Patterns of Fractionation and Exon Deletions In Brassica rapa Support a Two-step Model of Paleohexaploidy.
Genetics. 2012 Apr 01; 190: 1563-74.
The genome sequence of the paleohexaploid Brassica rapa shows that fractionation is biased among the three subgenomes and that the least fractionated subgenome has approximately twice as many orthologs as its close (and relatively unduplicated) relative Arabidopsis than had either of the other two subgenomes. One evolutionary scenario is that the two subgenomes with heavy gene losses (I and II) were in the same nucleus for a longer period of time than the third subgenome (III) with the fewest gene losses. This "two-step" hypothesis is essentially the same as that proposed previously for the eudicot paleohexaploidy; however, the more recent nature of the B. rapa paleohexaploidy makes this model more testable. We found that subgenome II suffered recent small deletions within exons more frequently than subgenome I, as would be expected if the genes in subgenome I had already been near maximally fractionated before subgenome III was introduced. We observed that some sequences, before these deletions, were flanked by short direct repeats, a unique signature of intrachromosomal illegitimate recombination. We also found, through simulations, that short--single or two-gene--deletions appear to dominate the fractionation patterns in B. rapa. We conclude that the observed patterns of the triplicated regions in the Brassica genome are best explained by a two-step fractionation model. The triplication and subsequent mode of fractionation could influence the potential to generate morphological diversity--a hallmark of the Brassica genus.