Pennypacker, K. R., Fuldner, R., Xu, R., Hernandez, H., Dawbarn, D., Mehta, N., Perez-Tur, J., Baker, M., Hutton, M.
Cloning and Characterization of the Presenilin-2 Gene Promoter
Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998 May 01; 56(1): 57-65.
Mutations in the presenilin-2 (PS-2) have been shown to cause early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a series of families known as the Volga Germans and in an unrelated Italian kindred. Expression of the PS-2 gene is regulated during AD, aging, development and brain injury. Although expressed primarily in neurons, enhanced levels of PS-2 have been reported in astrocytes activated by neuronal damage. Understanding the regulation of the PS-2 gene may thus provide an insight into its role in AD. We have isolated a 3635 bp DNA fragment that contains 2934 bp of DNA sequence upstream from the PS-2 gene. Primer extension analysis was used to map three major transcriptional start sites within the PS-2 gene. The promoter sequence, upstream of each transcriptional start site, does not contain TATA or CAAT boxes but does contain several GC rich sites (Sp-1 and AP-2). A reporter gene construct containing the PS-2 promoter (PS2P, -2934 to +702) transfected into M17 cells drives basal transcription to 20% of the levels of the SV-40 viral promoter. Addition of NGF to PC-12 cells was found to upregulate the PS2P promoter and an NGF-responsive element was localized by deletional analysis between -403 and +13 within the promoter. Since the PS-2 gene has multiple start sites and the upstream sequence is GC rich with no TATA box, the PS-2 promoter is consistent with the GC class of 'housekeeping' genes.