Paulsen, I. T., Chen, J., Nelson, K. E., Saier, M. H., Jr.
Comparative Genomics of Microbial Drug Efflux Systems
J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001 Apr 01; 3(2): 145-50.
The complete genome sequences of 36 microorganisms have now been published and this wealth of genome data has enabled the development of comparative genomic and functional genomic approaches to investigate the biology of these organisms. Comparative genomic analyses of membrane transport systems have revealed that transporter substrate specificities correlate with an organism's lifestyle. The types and numbers of predicted drug efflux systems vary dramatically amongst sequenced organisms. Microarray and gene knockout studies to date have suggested that predicted drug efflux genes often appear to be a) non-essential and b) expressed at detectable levels under standard laboratory growth conditions.