Ravel, J., Cornelis, P.
Genomics of Pyoverdine-mediated Iron Uptake In Pseudomonads
Trends Microbiol. 2003 May 01; 11(5): 195-200.
Pyoverdines (PVDs) are complex siderophores produced by members of the fluorescent Pseudomonas. They comprise a dihydroxyquinoline fluorescent chromophore joined to a peptide of remarkably variable length and composition. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PVDs also function as signal molecules for the production of virulence factors. Genes responsible for the biosynthesis, excretion, uptake and regulation of these high-affinity siderophores are located either at a single locus or at up to three different loci in the genomes of the four pseudomonads analyzed. The peptide backbone of PVD is assembled by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and modified by accessory enzymes in the cytoplasm, and probably the periplasm. Regulation of PVD production and uptake depends on two extracytoplasmic sigma factors (ECF-sigmas), PvdS and FpvI, together with one anti-sigma, FpvR.