Andersson, T., Unneberg, P., Nilsson, P., Odeberg, J., Quackenbush, J., Lundeberg, J.
Monitoring of Representational Difference Analysis Subtraction Procedures by Global Microarrays
Biotechniques. 2002 Jun 01; 32(6): 1348-50, 1352, 1354-6, 1358.
Various approaches to the study of differential gene expression are applied to compare cell lines and tissue samples in a wide range of biological contexts. The compromise between focusing on only the important genes in certain cellular processes and achieving a complete picture is critical for the selection of strategy. We demonstrate how global microarray technology can be used for the exploration of the differentially expressed genes extracted through representational difference analysis (RDA). The subtraction of ubiquitous gene fragments from the two samples was demonstrated using cDNA microarrays including more than 32 000 spotted, PCR-amplified human clones. Hybridizations indicated the expression of 9100 of the microarray elements in a macrophage/foam cell atherosclerosis model system, of which many were removed during the RDA process. The stepwise subtraction procedure was demonstrated to yield an efficient enrichment of gene fragments overrepresented in either sample (18% in the representations, 86% after the first subtraction, and 88% after the second subtraction), many of which were impossible to detect in the starting material. Interestingly, the method allowed for the observation of the differential expression of several members of the low-abundant nuclear receptor gene family. We also observed a certain background level in the difference products of nondifferentially expressed gene fragments, warranting a verification strategy for selected candidate genes. The differential expression of several genes was verified by real-time PCR.