Silva, J. C., Kondrashov, A. S.
Patterns In Spontaneous Mutation Revealed by Human-baboon Sequence Comparison
Trends Genet. 2002 Nov 01; 18(11): 544-7.
We have analyzed the alignment of a long homologous region of the human and baboon genomes (approximately 1.5 Mb). We show that the frequency of gaps between aligned segments decreases slowly with gap length, indicating that several successive nucleotides are often deleted or inserted in one event. By contrast, runs of consecutive mismatches decrease rapidly in frequency with increasing length, following an exponential distribution, indicating that nucleotides are mostly substituted one at a time. Nucleotide substitutions are clumped at the scales of <10 and 1000-10,000 nucleotides, but show almost no aggregation at the scales of <10-100 and over approximately 50,000 nucleotides. Apparently, two rather different factors make the substitution rate not exactly uniform along the DNA sequence. Comparison of regions of very similar genomes that are approximately selectively neutral makes it possible to study spontaneous mutation at a new level of resolution.