Hill NJ, Hussein IT, Davis KR, Ma EJ, Spivey TJ, Ramey AM, Puryear WB, Das SR, Halpin RA, Lin X, Fedorova NB, Suarez DL, Boyce WM, Runstadler JA
Reassortment Of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Alaska before H5 Clade 188.8.131.52 Outbreaks.
Emerging infectious Diseases. 2017 Apr 01; 23: 654-657.
Sampling of mallards in Alaska during September 2014-April 2015 identified low pathogenic avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N2 and H1N1) that shared ancestry with highly pathogenic reassortant H5N2 and H5N1 viruses. Molecular dating indicated reassortment soon after interhemispheric movement of H5N8 clade 184.108.40.206, suggesting genetic exchange in Alaska or surrounds before outbreaks.