JCVI: Severe Viral Respiratory Infections in Children With IFIH1 Loss-of-function Mutations.
 
 
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Citation

Asgari S, Schlapbach LJ, Anchisi S, Hammer C, Bartha I, Junier T, Mottet-Osman G, Posfay-Barbe KM, Longchamp D, Stocker M, Cordey S, Kaiser L, Riedel T, Kenna T, Long D, Schibler A, Telenti A, Tapparel C, McLaren PJ, Garcin D, Fellay J

Severe Viral Respiratory Infections in Children With IFIH1 Loss-of-function Mutations.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2017 Aug 01; 114. : 8342-8347.

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Abstract

Viral respiratory infections are usually mild and self-limiting; still they exceptionally result in life-threatening infections in previously healthy children. To investigate a potential genetic cause, we recruited 120 previously healthy children requiring support in intensive care because of a severe illness caused by a respiratory virus. Using exome and transcriptome sequencing, we identified and characterized three rare loss-of-function variants in IFIH1, which encodes an RIG-I-like receptor involved in the sensing of viral RNA. Functional testing of the variants IFIH1 alleles demonstrated that the resulting proteins are unable to induce IFN-β, are intrinsically less stable than wild-type IFIH1, and lack ATPase activity. In vitro assays showed that IFIH1 effectively restricts replication of human respiratory syncytial virus and rhinoviruses. We conclude that IFIH1 deficiency causes a primary immunodeficiency manifested in extreme susceptibility to common respiratory RNA viruses.