Stevens, R. H., Ektefaie, M. R., Fouts, D. E.
The Annotated Complete DNA Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Bacteriophage PhiEf11 and Its Comparison to All Available Phage and Predicted Prophage Genomes
FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010 Dec 23;
phiEf11 is a temperate Siphoviridae bacteriophage isolated by induction from a lysogenic Enterococcus faecalis strain. The phiEf11 DNA was completely sequenced and found to be 42 822 bp in length, with a G+C mol% of 34.4%. Genome analysis revealed 65 Open Reading Frames, accounting for 92.8% of the DNA content. All but 7 of the ORFs displayed sequence similarities to previously characterized proteins. The genes were arranged in functional modules, organized similarly to that of several other phages of low GC Gram-positive bacteria; however, the number and arrangement of lysis-related genes was atypical of these bacteriophages. A 159 bp non-coding region between predicted cI and cro genes is highly similar to the functionally-characterized early promoter region of Lactococcal temperate phage TP901-1, and possessed a predicted stem-loop structure in between predicted P(L) and P(R) promoters, suggesting a novel mechanism of repression of these two bacteriophages from the lambda paradigm. Comparison to all available phage and predicted prophage genomes revealed that the phiEf11 genome displays unique features, suggesting that phiEf11 may be a novel member of a larger family of temperate prophages that also includes Lactococcal phages. Trees based on the BLAST score ratio grouped this family by tail fiber similarity, suggesting that these trees are useful for identifying phages with similar tail-fibers.