Marinotti O, Cerqueira GC, de Almeida LG, Ferro MI, Loreto EL, Zaha A, Teixeira SM, Wespiser AR, Almeida E Silva A, Schlindwein AD, Pacheco AC, da Silva AL, Graveley BR, Walenz BP, de Araujo Lima B, Ribeiro CA, Nunes-Silva CG, de Carvalho CR, de Almeida Soares CM, de Menezes CB, Matiolli C, Caffrey D, Araújo DA, de Oliveira DM, Golenbock D, Grisard EC, Fantinatti-Garboggini F, de Carvalho FM, Barcellos FG, Prosdocimi F, May G, de Azevedo GM, Guimarães GM, Goldman GH, Padilha IQ, Batista JD, Ferro JA, Ribeiro JM, Fietto JL, Dabbas KM, Cerdeira L, Agnez-Lima LF, Brocchi M, de Carvalho MO, Teixeira MD, de Mascena Diniz Maia M, Goldman MH, Cruz Schneider MP, Felipe MS, Hungria M, Nicolás MF, Pereira M, Montes MA, Cantão ME, Vincentz M, Rafael MS, Silverman N, Stoco PH, Souza RC, Vicentini R, Gazzinelli RT, Neves RD, Silva R, Astolfi-Filho S, Maciel TE, Urményi TP, Tadei WP, Camargo EP, de Vasconcelos AT
The Genome of Anopheles Darlingi, the Main Neotropical Malaria Vector.
Nucleic Acids Research. 2013 Jun 12;
Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.