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First Self-Replicating Synthetic Bacterial Cell


Gibson, D. G., J. I. Glass, C. Lartigue, V. N. Noskov, R.-Y. Chuang, M. A. Algire, G. A. Benders, M. G. Montague, L. Ma, M. M. Moodie, C. Merryman, S. Vashee, R. Krishnakumar, N. Assad-Garcia, C. Andrews-Pfannkoch, E. A. Denisova, L. Young, Z.-Q. Qi, T. H. Segall-Shapiro, C. H. Calvey, P. P. Parmar, C. A. Hutchison III, H. O. Smith, and J. C. Venter. Creation of a bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome. Science, Published online May 20 2010.

Past Publications

Following are publications which led up to our current research.

Suthers, P. F., Dasika, M. S., et al.
A Genome-scale Metabolic Reconstruction of Mycoplasma Genitalium, IPS189

PLoS Comput Biol. 2009 Feb 01; 5(2): e1000285.[more]

Gibson, D. G., Benders, G. A., et al.
Complete Chemical Synthesis, Assembly, and Cloning of a Mycoplasma genitalium Genome

Science. 2008 Jan 24; 319(5867): 1215-20.[more]

Lartigue, C., Glass, J. I., et al.
Genome Transplantation In Bacteria: Changing One Species to Another

Science. 2007 Aug 03; 317(5838): 632-8.[more]

Glass JI, Assad-Garcia N, et al.
Essential Genes of a Minimal Bacterium.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006 Jan 10; 103(2): 425-30.[more]

Papazisi, L, Peterson, SN
Mycoplasmas-A Congruent Path Towards Minimal Life Functions

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics. 2005 Jun 01;[more]

Smith, H. O., Hutchison, C. A., 3rd, et al.
Generating a Synthetic Genome by Whole Genome Assembly: PhiX174 Bacteriophage from Synthetic Oligonucleotides

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Dec 23; 100(26): 15440-5.[more]

Peterson, S. N., Fraser, C. M.
The Complexity of Simplicity

Genome Biol. 2001 Feb 08; 2(2): COMMENT2002.[more]

Hutchison, C. A., Peterson, S. N., et al.
Global Transposon Mutagenesis and a Minimal Mycoplasma Genome

Science. 1999 Dec 10; 286(5447): 2165-9.[more]

Fraser, C. M., Gocayne, J. D., et al.
The Minimal Gene Complement of Mycoplasma genitalium

Science. 1995 Oct 20; 270(5235): 397-403.[more]

Publications and Other Resources Relating to Ethical and Societal Implications about Synthetic Genomics Research

Completed studies and reports from the United States

Ongoing US-based studies

US Government actions

Completed studies and reports from the United Kingdom and Europe

Ongoing studies in Europe, 7th Framework program

Synthetic Biology Periodic Meetings: SB 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, x.0....

The synthetic biology community holds recurring international meetings that include ethicists and social scientists with general interests in the research. Each meeting has dedicated time to presentations on societal impacts and issues.

Related Links

Press Release (Web | PDF)

Frequently Asked Questions (Web | PDF)

Fact Sheet: Ethical and Societal Implications/Policy Discussions about Synthetic Genomics Research (PDF)

Fact Sheet: Background/ Rationale for Creation of a Synthetic Bacterial Cell (PDF)