First Self-Replicating Synthetic Bacterial Cell
Gibson, D. G., J. I. Glass, C. Lartigue, V. N. Noskov, R.-Y. Chuang, M. A. Algire, G. A. Benders, M. G. Montague, L. Ma, M. M. Moodie, C. Merryman, S. Vashee, R. Krishnakumar, N. Assad-Garcia, C. Andrews-Pfannkoch, E. A. Denisova, L. Young, Z.-Q. Qi, T. H. Segall-Shapiro, C. H. Calvey, P. P. Parmar, C. A. Hutchison III, H. O. Smith, and J. C. Venter. Creation of a bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome. Science, Published online May 20 2010.
Following are publications which led up to our current research.
Suthers, P. F., Dasika, M. S., et al.
A Genome-scale Metabolic Reconstruction of Mycoplasma Genitalium, IPS189
PLoS Comput Biol. 2009 Feb 01; 5(2): e1000285.
Gibson, D. G., Benders, G. A., et al.
Complete Chemical Synthesis, Assembly, and Cloning of a Mycoplasma genitalium Genome
Science. 2008 Jan 24; 319(5867): 1215-20.
Lartigue, C., Glass, J. I., et al.
Genome Transplantation In Bacteria: Changing One Species to Another
Science. 2007 Aug 03; 317(5838): 632-8.
Glass JI, Assad-Garcia N, et al.
Essential Genes of a Minimal Bacterium.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006 Jan 10; 103(2): 425-30.
Papazisi, L, Peterson, SN
Mycoplasmas-A Congruent Path Towards Minimal Life Functions
Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics. 2005 Jun 01;
Smith, H. O., Hutchison, C. A., 3rd, et al.
Generating a Synthetic Genome by Whole Genome Assembly: PhiX174 Bacteriophage from Synthetic Oligonucleotides
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Dec 23; 100(26): 15440-5.
Peterson, S. N., Fraser, C. M.
The Complexity of Simplicity
Genome Biol. 2001 Feb 08; 2(2): COMMENT2002.
Hutchison, C. A., Peterson, S. N., et al.
Global Transposon Mutagenesis and a Minimal Mycoplasma Genome
Science. 1999 Dec 10; 286(5447): 2165-9.
Fraser, C. M., Gocayne, J. D., et al.
The Minimal Gene Complement of Mycoplasma genitalium
Science. 1995 Oct 20; 270(5235): 397-403.
Publications and Other Resources Relating to Ethical and Societal Implications about Synthetic Genomics Research
Completed studies and reports from the United States
- Cho MK, Magnus D, Caplan AL, McGee D, and the Ethics of Genomics Group. 1999. Ethical Considerations in Synthesizing a Minimal Genome. Science 286: 2087-2090.
- United States Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee, 2004. Synthetic Genomes: Technologies and Impact.
- National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) 2006. Addressing Biosecurity Concerns Related to the Synthesis of Select Agents.
- Garfinkel MS, Endy D, Epstein GL, and Friedman RM, Synthetic Genomics: Options for Governance, 2007.
- National Academies/OECD/Royal Society, 2009. Opportunities and Challenges in the Emerging Field of Synthetic Biology: A Symposium
Ongoing US-based studies
- Synthetic Genomics: Scientists' Understanding of Society's Concerns, Society's Understanding of the Science and Scientists
- Synthetic Biology Project: Ensuring Benefits are realized through Responsible Development
- Ethical Issues in Synthetic Biology: Non-Physical Moral Harms and Public Policy
- Synthetic Biology Engineering Research Center (SynBERC)
US Government actions
- 2009. Federal Register Notice: Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Office of Biotechnology Activities. Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines)
- 2009. Federal Register Notice: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Secretary. Screening Framework Guidance for Synthetic Double-Stranded DNA Providers.
Completed studies and reports from the United Kingdom and Europe
- De Vriend H, for the Rathenau Institute. 2006. Constructing Life: Early social reflections on the emerging field of synthetic biology
- International Association Synthetic Biology Code, 2009. The IASB Code of Conduct for Best Practices in Gene Synthesis.
- Synbiosafe (European Commission 6th Framework Program, Project on Synthetic Biology Safety and Ethical Aspects).
- UK Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, 2008. POSTnote
Ongoing studies in Europe, 7th Framework program
- SYBHEL (Synthetic Biology for Human Health: Ethical and Legal Issues)
- Synth-Ethics (Ethical and Regulatory Issues Raised by Synthetic Biology)
Synthetic Biology Periodic Meetings: SB 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, x.0....
The synthetic biology community holds recurring international meetings that include ethicists and social scientists with general interests in the research. Each meeting has dedicated time to presentations on societal impacts and issues.
Fact Sheet: Ethical and Societal Implications/Policy Discussions about Synthetic Genomics Research (PDF)
Fact Sheet: Background/ Rationale for Creation of a Synthetic Bacterial Cell (PDF)