Kwon YS, Garcia-Bassets I, Hutt KR, Cheng CS, Jin M, Liu D, Benner C, Wang D, Ye Z, Bibikova M, Fan JB, Duan L, Glass CK, Rosenfeld MG, Fu XD
Sensitive ChIP-DSL technology reveals an extensive estrogen receptor alpha-binding program on human gene promoters.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2007-03-20; 104.12: 4852-7.
ChIP coupled with microarray provides a powerful tool to determine in vivo binding profiling of transcription factors to deduce regulatory circuitries in mammalian cells. Aiming at improving the specificity and sensitivity of such analysis, we developed a new technology called ChIP-DSL using the DNA selection and ligation (DSL) strategy, permitting robust analysis with much reduced materials compared with standard procedures. We profiled general and sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factors using a full human genome promoter array based on the ChIP-DSL technology, revealing an unprecedented number of the estrogen receptor (ERalpha) target genes in MCF-7 cells. Coupled with gene expression profiling, we found that only a fraction of these direct ERalpha target genes were highly responsive to estrogen and that the expression of those ERalpha-bound, estrogen-inducible genes was associated with breast cancer progression in humans. This study demonstrates the power of the ChIP-DSL technology in revealing regulatory gene expression programs that have been previously invisible in the human genome.
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