Freire MO, You HK, Kook JK, Choi JH, Zadeh HH
Antibody-mediated osseous regeneration: a novel strategy for bioengineering bone by immobilized anti-bone morphogenetic protein-2 antibodies.
Tissue engineering. Part A. 2011-12-01; 17.23-24: 2911-8.
Bone regeneration often requires harvesting of autologous bone with significant potential morbidity and cost. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for specific regenerative indications. However, administration of exogenous growth factors has many drawbacks. The objective of the present proof-of-concept study was to determine whether immobilized anti-BMP-2 antibodies (Abs) could capture endogenous BMP-2 in local sites to mediate osteogenesis, a strategy we refer to as antibody-mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR). We have generated a murine anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibody library, which was tested along with commercially available Abs in vitro and in vivo for their ability to mediate AMOR. In vitro studies demonstrated that only some anti-BMP-2 Abs tested formed immune complexes with BMP-2, which can bind to BMP cellular receptor, whereas other BMP-2/anti-BMP-2 complexes failed to bind. To investigate whether anti-BMP-2 Abs were able to mediate AMOR in vivo, anti-BMP-2 Abs were immobilized on absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) and surgically placed in rat calvarial defects. Microcomputed tomography analysis of live animals at 2, 4, and 6 weeks demonstrated that some anti-BMP-2 Abs immobilized on ACS mediated significant bone regeneration, whereas other clones did not mediate any bone regeneration. In situ BMP-2 and osteocalcin expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrated higher BMP-2 and osteocalcin expression in sites with increased bone regeneration. Results provide first evidence for the ability of anti-BMP2 Abs to form an immune complex with endogenous BMP-2 and mediate bone regeneration in vivo, suggesting a promising therapeutic method for tissue engineering.
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