Sikora AE, Beyhan S, Bagdasarian M, Yildiz FH, Sandkvist M
Cell envelope perturbation induces oxidative stress and changes in iron homeostasis in Vibrio cholerae.
Journal of bacteriology. 2009-09-01; 191.17: 5398-408.
The Vibrio cholerae type II secretion (T2S) machinery is a multiprotein complex that spans the cell envelope. When the T2S system is inactivated, cholera toxin and other exoproteins accumulate in the periplasmic compartment. Additionally, loss of secretion via the T2S system leads to a reduced growth rate, compromised outer membrane integrity, and induction of the extracytoplasmic stress factor RpoE (A. E. Sikora, S. R. Lybarger, and M. Sandkvist, J. Bacteriol. 189:8484-8495, 2007). In this study, gene expression profiling reveals that inactivation of the T2S system alters the expression of genes encoding cell envelope components and proteins involved in central metabolism, chemotaxis, motility, oxidative stress, and iron storage and acquisition. Consistent with the gene expression data, molecular and biochemical analyses indicate that the T2S mutants suffer from internal oxidative stress and increased levels of intracellular ferrous iron. By using a tolA mutant of V. cholerae that shares a similar compromised membrane phenotype but maintains a functional T2S machinery, we show that the formation of radical oxygen species, induction of oxidative stress, and changes in iron physiology are likely general responses to cell envelope damage and are not unique to T2S mutants. Finally, we demonstrate that disruption of the V. cholerae cell envelope by chemical treatment with polymyxin B similarly results in induction of the RpoE-mediated stress response, increased sensitivity to oxidants, and a change in iron metabolism. We propose that many types of extracytoplasmic stresses, caused either by genetic alterations of outer membrane constituents or by chemical or physical damage to the cell envelope, induce common signaling pathways that ultimately lead to internal oxidative stress and misregulation of iron homeostasis.
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