Epidemiology and Sequence-Based Evolutionary Analysis of Circulating Non-Polio Enteroviruses
Brown DM, Zhang Y, Scheuermann RH
Enteroviruses (EVs) are positive-sense RNA viruses, with over 50,000 nucleotide sequences publicly available. While most human infections are typically associated with mild respiratory symptoms, several different EV types have also been associated with severe human disease, especially acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), particularly with endemic members of the EV-B species and two pandemic types-EV-A71 and EV-D68-that appear to be responsible for recent widespread outbreaks. Here we review the recent literature on the prevalence, characteristics, and circulation dynamics of different enterovirus types and combine this with an analysis of the sequence coverage of different EV types in public databases (e.g., the Virus Pathogen Resource). This evaluation reveals temporal and geographic differences in EV circulation and sequence distribution, highlighting recent EV outbreaks and revealing gaps in sequence coverage. Phylogenetic analysis of the EV genus shows the relatedness of different EV types. Recombination analysis of the EV-A species provides evidence for recombination as a mechanism of genomic diversification. The absence of broadly protective vaccines and effective antivirals makes human enteroviruses important pathogens of public health concern.