Host Genetic Control of the Oral Microbiome in Health and Disease
Gomez A, Espinoza JL, Harkins DM, Leong P, Saffery R, Bockmann M, Torralba M, Kuelbs C, Kodukula R, Inman J, Hughes T, Craig JM, Highlander SK, Jones MB, Dupont CL, Nelson KE
Host-associated microbial communities are influenced by both host genetics and environmental factors. However, factors controlling the human oral microbiome and their impact on disease remain to be investigated. To determine the combined and relative effects of host genotype and environment on oral microbiome composition and caries phenotypes, we profiled the supragingival plaque microbiome of 485 dizygotic and monozygotic twins aged 5-11. Oral microbiome similarity always increased with shared host genotype, regardless of caries state. Additionally, although most of the variation in the oral microbiome was determined by environmental factors, highly heritable oral taxa were identified. The most heritable oral bacteria were not associated with caries state, did not tend to co-occur with other taxa, and decreased in abundance with age and sugar consumption frequency. Thus, while the human oral microbiome composition is influenced by host genetic background, potentially cariogenic taxa are likely not controlled by genetic factors.