Microbiome disturbance and resilience dynamics of the upper respiratory tract during influenza A virus infection
Kaul D, Rathnasinghe R, Ferres M, Tan GS, Barrera A, Pickett BE, Methe BA, Das SR, Das S, Budnik I, Halpin RA, Wentworth D, Schmolke M, Mena I, Albrecht RA, Singh I, Nelson KE, García-Sastre A, Dupont CL, Medina RA
Infection with influenza can be aggravated by bacterial co-infections, which often results in disease exacerbation. The effects of influenza infection on the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome are largely unknown. Here, we report a longitudinal study to assess the temporal dynamics of the URT microbiomes of uninfected and influenza virus-infected humans and ferrets. Uninfected human patients and ferret URT microbiomes have stable healthy ecostate communities both within and between individuals. In contrast, infected patients and ferrets exhibit large changes in bacterial community composition over time and between individuals. The unhealthy ecostates of infected individuals progress towards the healthy ecostate, coinciding with viral clearance and recovery. Pseudomonadales associate statistically with the disturbed microbiomes of infected individuals. The dynamic and resilient microbiome during influenza virus infection in multiple hosts provides a compelling rationale for the maintenance of the microbiome homeostasis as a potential therapeutic target to prevent IAV associated bacterial co-infections.