Synthetic generation of influenza vaccine viruses for rapid response to pandemics
Dormitzer PR, Suphaphiphat P, Gibson DG, Wentworth DE, Stockwell TB, Algire MA, Alperovich N, Barro M, Brown DM, Craig S, Dattilo BM, Denisova EA, De Souza I, Eickmann M, Dugan VG, Ferrari A, Gomila RC, Han L, Judge C, Mane S, Matrosovich M, Merryman C, Palladino G, Palmer GA, Spencer T, Strecker T, Trusheim H, Uhlendorff J, Wen Y, Yee AC, Zaveri J, Zhou B, Becker S, Donabedian A, Mason PW, Glass JI, Rappuoli R, Venter JC
During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, vaccines for the virus became available in large quantities only after human infections peaked. To accelerate vaccine availability for future pandemics, we developed a synthetic approach that very rapidly generated vaccine viruses from sequence data. Beginning with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences, we combined an enzymatic, cell-free gene assembly technique with enzymatic error correction to allow rapid, accurate gene synthesis. We then used these synthetic HA and NA genes to transfect Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were qualified for vaccine manufacture with viral RNA expression constructs encoding HA and NA and plasmid DNAs encoding viral backbone genes. Viruses for use in vaccines were rescued from these MDCK cells. We performed this rescue with improved vaccine virus backbones, increasing the yield of the essential vaccine antigen, HA. Generation of synthetic vaccine seeds, together with more efficient vaccine release assays, would accelerate responses to influenza pandemics through a system of instantaneous electronic data exchange followed by real-time, geographically dispersed vaccine production.