Silva SR, Moraes AP, Penha HA, Julião MHM, Domingues DS, Michael TP, Miranda VFO, Varani AM

The Terrestrial Carnivorous Plant Utricularia reniformis Sheds Light on Environmental and Life-Form Genome Plasticity.

International journal of molecular sciences. 2019-12-18; 21.1:

belongs to Lentibulariaceae, a widespread family of carnivorous plants that possess ultra-small and highly dynamic nuclear genomes. It has been shown that the Lentibulariaceae genomes have been shaped by transposable elements expansion and loss, and multiple rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGD), making the family a platform for evolutionary and comparative genomics studies. To explore the evolution of , we estimated the chromosome number and genome size, as well as sequenced the terrestrial bladderwort (2 = 40, 1C = 317.1-Mpb). Here, we report a high quality 304 Mb draft genome, with a scaffold NG50 of 466-Kb, a BUSCO completeness of 87.8%, and 42,582 predicted genes. Compared to the smaller and aquatic genome (101 Mb) that has a 32% repetitive sequence, the genome is highly repetitive (56%). The structural differences between the two genomes are the result of distinct fractionation and rearrangements after WGD, and massive proliferation of LTR-retrotransposons. Moreover, GO enrichment analyses suggest an ongoing gene birth-death-innovation process occurring among the tandem duplicated genes, shaping the evolution of carnivory-associated functions. We also identified unique patterns of developmentally related genes that support the terrestrial life-form and body plan of . Collectively, our results provided additional insights into the evolution of the plastic and specialized Lentibulariaceae genomes.

PMID: 31861318