The Human Microbiome is the collection of all the microorganisms living in association with the human body. These communities consist of a variety of microorganisms including eukaryotes, archaea, bacteria and viruses. Bacteria in an average human body number ten times more than human cells, for a total of about 1000 more genes than are present in the human genome. Because of their small size, however, microorganisms make up only about 1 to 3 percent of our body mass (that's 2 to 6 pounds of bacteria in a 200-pound adult). These microbes are generally not harmful to us, in fact they are essential for maintaining health.
For example, they produce some vitamins that we do not have the genes to make, break down our food to extract nutrients we need to survive, teach our immune systems how to recognize dangerous invaders and even produce helpful anti-inflammatory compounds that fight off other disease-causing microbes. An ever-growing number of studies have demonstrated that changes in the composition of our microbiomes correlate with numerous disease states, raising the possibility that manipulation of these communities could be used to treat disease.
Analyses of the stability and core taxonomic memberships of the human microbiome.
PloS one. 2013-01-01; 8.5: e63139.
A framework for human microbiome research.
Nature. 2012-06-13; 486.7402: 215-21.
Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome.
Nature. 2012-06-13; 486.7402: 207-14.
Analyses of the microbial diversity across the human microbiome.
PloS one. 2012-01-01; 7.5: e32118.
Evaluation of 16S rDNA-based community profiling for human microbiome research.
PloS one. 2012-01-01; 7.5: e39315.
Draft genome sequence of Bacteroides vulgatus PC510, a strain isolated from human feces.
Journal of bacteriology. 2011-08-01; 193.16: 4025-6.
Minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS) and minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS) specifications.
Nature biotechnology. 2011-05-01; 29.5: 415-20.
Robust computational analysis of rRNA hypervariable tag datasets.
PloS one. 2010-12-31; 5.12: e15220.
Using DGGE profiling to develop a novel culture medium suitable for oral microbial communities.
Molecular oral microbiology. 2010-10-01; 25.5: 357-67.
Bacterial diversity in the oral cavity of 10 healthy individuals.
The ISME journal. 2010-08-01; 4.8: 962-74.
ANDES: Statistical tools for the ANalyses of DEep Sequencing.
BMC research notes. 2010-07-15; 3.199.
Diversity of 16S rRNA genes within individual prokaryotic genomes.
Applied and environmental microbiology. 2010-06-01; 76.12: 3886-97.
A catalog of reference genomes from the human microbiome.
Science (New York, N.Y.). 2010-05-21; 328.5981: 994-9.
Genomics. Genome project standards in a new era of sequencing.
Science (New York, N.Y.). 2009-10-09; 326.5950: 236-7.
Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome.
Science (New York, N.Y.). 2006-06-02; 312.5778: 1355-9.
Molecular analysis of the bacterial microbiota in the human stomach.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006-01-17; 103.3: 732-7.
Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora.
Science (New York, N.Y.). 2005-06-10; 308.5728: 1635-8.