Genetic tool development in marine protists: emerging model organisms for experimental cell biology
Faktorová D, Nisbet RER, Fernández Robledo JA, Casacuberta E, Sudek L, Allen AE, Ares M, Aresté C, Balestreri C, Barbrook AC, Beardslee P, Bender S, Booth DS, Bouget FY, Bowler C, Breglia SA, Brownlee C, Burger G, Cerutti H, Cesaroni R, Chiurillo MA, Clemente T, Coles DB, Collier JL, Cooney EC, Coyne K, Docampo R, Dupont CL, Edgcomb V, Einarsson E, Elustondo PA, Federici F, Freire-Beneitez V, Freyria NJ, Fukuda K, García PA, Girguis PR, Gomaa F, Gornik SG, Guo J, Hampl V, Hanawa Y, Haro-Contreras ER, Hehenberger E, Highfield A, Hirakawa Y, Hopes A, Howe CJ, Hu I, Ibañez J, Irwin NAT, Ishii Y, Janowicz NE, Jones AC, Kachale A, Fujimura-Kamada K, Kaur B, Kaye JZ, Kazana E, Keeling PJ, King N, Klobutcher LA, Lander N, Lassadi I, Li Z, Lin S, Lozano JC, Luan F, Maruyama S, Matute T, Miceli C, Minagawa J, Moosburner M, Najle SR, Nanjappa D, Nimmo IC, Noble L, Novák Vanclová AMG, Nowacki M, Nuñez I, Pain A, Piersanti A, Pucciarelli S, Pyrih J, Rest JS, Rius M, Robertson D, Ruaud A, Ruiz-Trillo I, Sigg MA, Silver PA, Slamovits CH, Jason Smith G, Sprecher BN, Stern R, Swart EC, Tsaousis AD, Tsypin L, Turkewitz A, Turnšek J, Valach M, Vergé V, von Dassow P, von der Haar T, Waller RF, Wang L, Wen X, Wheeler G, Woods A, Zhang H, Mock T, Worden AZ, Lukeš J
Diverse microbial ecosystems underpin life in the sea. Among these microbes are many unicellular eukaryotes that span the diversity of the eukaryotic tree of life. However, genetic tractability has been limited to a few species, which do not represent eukaryotic diversity or environmentally relevant taxa. Here, we report on the development of genetic tools in a range of protists primarily from marine environments. We present evidence for foreign DNA delivery and expression in 13 species never before transformed and for advancement of tools for eight other species, as well as potential reasons for why transformation of yet another 17 species tested was not achieved. Our resource in genetic manipulation will provide insights into the ancestral eukaryotic lifeforms, general eukaryote cell biology, protein diversification and the evolution of cellular pathways.