Gene Tan is an assistant professor at the J. Craig Venter Institute working in the Infectious Disease group. The focus of his research is on virus-host interactions by defining the immunological, molecular and genetic determinants that govern immunity and disease. The aim is to better understand how viruses manipulate the host machinery to replicate and in turn elucidate the mechanisms by which the host counteracts the pathogen. Analyses of virus-host interaction can then facilitate the development of better diagnostic tools, novel therapeutics and vaccines.

Prior to his appointment at JCVI, Dr. Tan was a postdoctoral fellow at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai working on characterizing the immunological and structural determinants of protection against influenza virus and Zika virus. He received his doctorate from Thomas Jefferson University and his undergraduate degree from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science.


Vaccines for use in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza virus disease (Pat. No. US20170114103)

Research Priorities

Characterization of the structural and immunological determinants of protection against viral pathogens:
  • Elucidate the mechanisms by which antibodies neutralize virus and protect in vivo.
  • Emphasis on developing novel methods in isolating monoclonal antibodies from human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) compartment.
Characterization of virus-host interaction by defining the molecular and transcriptional response
  • Emphasis on respiratory and neurotropic pathogens.


Frontiers in genetics. 2023-05-09; 14.1172048.
Influenza A viruses in gulls in landfills and freshwater habitats in Minnesota, United States
Rasmussen EA, Czaja A, Cuthbert FJ, Tan GS, Lemey P, Nelson MI, Culhane MR
PMID: 37229191
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2023-04-25; 120.17: e2208718120.
Epistasis reduces fitness costs of influenza A virus escape from stem-binding antibodies
Lee CY, Raghunathan V, Caceres CJ, Geiger G, Seibert B, Cargnin Faccin F, Gay LC, Ferreri LM, Kaul D, Wrammert J, Tan GS, Perez DR, Lowen AC
PMID: 37068231
Critical care (London, England). 2023-04-20; 27.1: 155.
Major adverse cardiovascular events are associated with necroptosis during severe COVID-19
Wiscovitch-Russo R, Ibáñez-Prada ED, Serrano-Mayorga CC, Sievers BL, Engelbride MA, Padmanabhan S, Tan GS, Vashee S, Bustos IG, Pachecho C, Mendez L, Dube PH, Singh H, Reyes LF, Gonzalez-Juarbe N
PMID: 37081485
Nucleic acids research. 2023-01-06; 51.D1: D678-D689.
Introducing the Bacterial and Viral Bioinformatics Resource Center (BV-BRC): a resource combining PATRIC, IRD and ViPR
Olson RD, Assaf R, Brettin T, Conrad N, Cucinell C, Davis JJ, Dempsey DM, Dickerman A, Dietrich EM, Kenyon RW, Kuscuoglu M, Lefkowitz EJ, Lu J, Machi D, Macken C, Mao C, Niewiadomska A, Nguyen M, Olsen GJ, Overbeek JC, Parrello B, Parrello V, Porter JS, Pusch GD, Shukla M, Singh I, Stewart L, Tan G, Thomas C, VanOeffelen M, Vonstein V, Wallace ZS, Warren AS, Wattam AR, Xia F, Yoo H, Zhang Y, Zmasek CM, Scheuermann RH, Stevens RL
PMID: 36350631
STAR protocols. 2022-12-16; 3.4: 101835.
A high-throughput SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus multiplex neutralization assay
Sievers BL, Gelbart T, Tan GS
PMID: 36595901
eLife. 2022-10-14; 11.
Early immune markers of clinical, virological, and immunological outcomes in patients with COVID-19: a multi-omics study
Hu Z, van der Ploeg K, Chakraborty S, Arunachalam PS, Mori DAM, Jacobson KB, Bonilla H, Parsonnet J, Andrews JR, Holubar M, Subramanian A, Khosla C, Maldonado Y, Hedlin H, de la Parte L, Press K, Ty M, Tan GS, Blish C, Takahashi S, Rodriguez-Barraquer I, Greenhouse B, Butte AJ, Singh U, Pulendran B, Wang TT, Jagannathan P
PMID: 36239699
Cell reports. Medicine. 2022-06-21; 3.6: 100640.
TNF-α+ CD4+ T cells dominate the SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response in COVID-19 outpatients and are associated with durable antibodies
van der Ploeg K, Kirosingh AS, Mori DAM, Chakraborty S, Hu Z, Sievers BL, Jacobson KB, Bonilla H, Parsonnet J, Andrews JR, Press KD, Ty MC, Ruiz-Betancourt DR, de la Parte L, Tan GS, Blish CA, Takahashi S, Rodriguez-Barraquer I, Greenhouse B, Singh U, Wang TT, Jagannathan P
PMID: 35588734
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. 2022-05-04; 30.5: 2024-2047.
A single-shot adenoviral vaccine provides hemagglutinin stalk-mediated protection against heterosubtypic influenza challenge in mice
Bliss CM, Freyn AW, Caniels TG, Leyva-Grado VH, Nachbagauer R, Sun W, Tan GS, Gillespie VL, McMahon M, Krammer F, Hill AV, Hill AVS, Palese P, Coughlan L
PMID: 34999208
Science translational medicine. 2022-03-09; 14.635: eabm7853.
Early non-neutralizing, afucosylated antibody responses are associated with COVID-19 severity
Chakraborty S, Gonzalez JC, Sievers BL, Mallajosyula V, Chakraborty S, Dubey M, Ashraf U, Cheng BY, Kathale N, Tran KQT, Scallan C, Sinnott A, Cassidy A, Chen ST, Gelbart T, Gao F, Golan Y, Ji X, Kim-Schulze S, Prahl M, Gaw SL, Gnjatic S, Marron TU, Merad M, Arunachalam PS, Boyd SD, Davis MM, Holubar M, Khosla C, Maecker HT, Maldonado Y, Mellins ED, Nadeau KC, Pulendran B, Singh U, Subramanian A, Utz PJ, Sherwood R, Zhang S, Jagannathan P, Tan GS, Wang TT
PMID: 35040666
Science translational medicine. 2022-03-02; 14.634: eabn7842.
Antibodies elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA vaccines have reduced neutralizing activity against Beta and Omicron pseudoviruses
Sievers BL, Chakraborty S, Xue Y, Gelbart T, Gonzalez JC, Cassidy AG, Golan Y, Prahl M, Gaw SL, Arunachalam PS, Blish CA, Boyd SD, Davis MM, Jagannathan P, Nadeau KC, Pulendran B, Singh U, Scheuermann RH, Frieman MB, Vashee S, Wang TT, Tan GS
PMID: 35025672
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2021-09-07; 118.36:
Influenza A viruses balance ER stress with host protein synthesis shutoff
Mazel-Sanchez B, Iwaszkiewicz J, Bonifacio JPP, Silva F, Niu C, Strohmeier S, Eletto D, Krammer F, Tan G, Zoete V, Hale BG, Schmolke M
PMID: 34479996
Viruses. 2021-07-08; 13.7:
Evaluation of ELISA-Based Multiplex Peptides for the Detection of Human Serum Antibodies Induced by Zika Virus Infection across Various Countries
Martinez Viedma MDP, Panossian S, Gifford K, García K, Figueroa I, Parham L, de Moraes L, Nunes Gomes L, García-Salum T, Perret C, Weiskopf D, Tan GS, Augusto Silva A, Boaventura V, Ruiz-Palacios GM, Sette A, De Silva AD, Medina RA, Lorenzana I, Akrami KM, Khouri R, Olson D, Pickett BE
PMID: 34372525
Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2021-05-01; 172.314-338.
SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in advanced clinical trials: Where do we stand?
Chakraborty S, Mallajosyula V, Tato CM, Tan GS, Wang TT
PMID: 33482248
Viruses. 2021-01-28; 13.2:
Influenza A Viruses in Whistling Ducks (Subfamily Dendrocygninae)
Carter DL, Link P, Tan G, Stallknecht DE, Poulson RL
PMID: 33525360
Nature immunology. 2021-01-01; 22.1: 67-73.
Proinflammatory IgG Fc structures in patients with severe COVID-19
Chakraborty S, Gonzalez J, Edwards K, Mallajosyula V, Buzzanco AS, Sherwood R, Buffone C, Kathale N, Providenza S, Xie MM, Andrews JR, Blish CA, Singh U, Dugan H, Wilson PC, Pham TD, Boyd SD, Nadeau KC, Pinsky BA, Zhang S, Memoli MJ, Taubenberger JK, Morales T, Schapiro JM, Tan GS, Jagannathan P, Wang TT
PMID: 33169014
Nature microbiology. 2020-09-01; 5.9: 1158-1169.
Collective interactions augment influenza A virus replication in a host-dependent manner
Phipps KL, Ganti K, Jacobs NT, Lee CY, Carnaccini S, White MC, Manandhar M, Pickett BE, Tan GS, Ferreri LM, Perez DR, Lowen AC
PMID: 32632248
Nature communications. 2020-06-16; 11.1: 3132.
Author Correction: Microbiome disturbance and resilience dynamics of the upper respiratory tract during influenza A virus infection
Kaul D, Rathnasinghe R, Ferres M, Tan GS, Barrera A, Pickett BE, Methe BA, Das SR, Budnik I, Halpin RA, Wentworth D, Schmolke M, Mena I, Albrecht RA, Singh I, Nelson KE, García-Sastre A, Dupont CL, Medina RA
PMID: 32546784
Nature communications. 2020-05-21; 11.1: 2537.
Microbiome disturbance and resilience dynamics of the upper respiratory tract during influenza A virus infection
Kaul D, Rathnasinghe R, Ferres M, Tan GS, Barrera A, Pickett BE, Methe BA, Das SR, Das S, Budnik I, Halpin RA, Wentworth D, Schmolke M, Mena I, Albrecht RA, Singh I, Nelson KE, García-Sastre A, Dupont CL, Medina RA
PMID: 32439901
mBio. 2020-03-24; 11.2:
Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies against the Gn and the Gc of the Andes Virus Glycoprotein Spike Complex Protect from Virus Challenge in a Preclinical Hamster Model
Duehr J, McMahon M, Williamson B, Amanat F, Durbin A, Hawman DW, Noack D, Uhl S, Tan GS, Feldmann H, Krammer F
PMID: 32209676
Journal of virology. 2019-10-15; 93.20:
Innate Immune Response to Influenza Virus at Single-Cell Resolution in Human Epithelial Cells Revealed Paracrine Induction of Interferon Lambda 1
Ramos I, Smith G, Ruf-Zamojski F, Martínez-Romero C, Fribourg M, Carbajal EA, Hartmann BM, Nair VD, Marjanovic N, Monteagudo PL, DeJesus VA, Mutetwa T, Zamojski M, Tan GS, Jayaprakash C, Zaslavsky E, Albrecht RA, Sealfon SC, García-Sastre A, Fernandez-Sesma A
PMID: 31375585
Nature communications. 2018-10-11; 9.1: 4223.
Non-neutralizing antibodies elicited by recombinant Lassa-Rabies vaccine are critical for protection against Lassa fever
Abreu-Mota T, Hagen KR, Cooper K, Jahrling PB, Tan G, Wirblich C, Johnson RF, Schnell MJ
PMID: 30310067
Nature communications. 2017-10-10; 8.1: 846.
Alveolar macrophages are critical for broadly-reactive antibody-mediated protection against influenza A virus in mice
He W, Chen CJ, Mullarkey CE, Hamilton JR, Wong CK, Leon PE, Uccellini MB, Chromikova V, Henry C, Hoffman KW, Lim JK, Wilson PC, Miller MS, Krammer F, Palese P, Tan GS
PMID: 29018261
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2016-10-18; 113.42: 11931-11936.
Epitope specificity plays a critical role in regulating antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against influenza A virus
He W, Tan GS, Mullarkey CE, Lee AJ, Lam MM, Krammer F, Henry C, Wilson PC, Ashkar AA, Palese P, Miller MS
PMID: 27698132
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2016-10-04; 113.40: E5944-E5951.
Optimal activation of Fc-mediated effector functions by influenza virus hemagglutinin antibodies requires two points of contact
Leon PE, He W, Mullarkey CE, Bailey MJ, Miller MS, Krammer F, Palese P, Tan GS
PMID: 27647907
Cell host & microbe. 2016-06-08; 19.6: 800-13.
Both Neutralizing and Non-Neutralizing Human H7N9 Influenza Vaccine-Induced Monoclonal Antibodies Confer Protection
Henry Dunand CJ, Leon PE, Huang M, Choi A, Chromikova V, Ho IY, Tan GS, Cruz J, Hirsh A, Zheng NY, Mullarkey CE, Ennis FA, Terajima M, Treanor JJ, Topham DJ, Subbarao K, Palese P, Krammer F, Wilson PC
PMID: 27281570
PLoS pathogens. 2016-04-01; 12.4: e1005578.
Broadly-Reactive Neutralizing and Non-neutralizing Antibodies Directed against the H7 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Reveal Divergent Mechanisms of Protection
Tan GS, Leon PE, Albrecht RA, Margine I, Hirsh A, Bahl J, Krammer F
PMID: 27081859
Journal of virology. 2016-01-13; 90.7: 3789-93.
Influenza A Viruses Expressing Intra- or Intergroup Chimeric Hemagglutinins
Chen CJ, Ermler ME, Tan GS, Krammer F, Palese P, Hai R
PMID: 26764009
Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2015-07-01; 59.7: 4162-72.
Direct administration in the respiratory tract improves efficacy of broadly neutralizing anti-influenza virus monoclonal antibodies
Leyva-Grado VH, Tan GS, Leon PE, Yondola M, Palese P
PMID: 25941218
The Journal of clinical investigation. 2015-03-02; 125.3: 1255-68.
Preexisting human antibodies neutralize recently emerged H7N9 influenza strains
Henry Dunand CJ, Leon PE, Kaur K, Tan GS, Zheng NY, Andrews S, Huang M, Qu X, Huang Y, Salgado-Ferrer M, Ho IY, Taylor W, Hai R, Wrammert J, Ahmed R, García-Sastre A, Palese P, Krammer F, Wilson PC
PMID: 25689254
Journal of virology. 2014-12-01; 88.23: 13580-92.
Characterization of a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody that targets the fusion domain of group 2 influenza A virus hemagglutinin
Tan GS, Lee PS, Hoffman RM, Mazel-Sanchez B, Krammer F, Leon PE, Ward AB, Wilson IA, Palese P
PMID: 25210195
Nature medicine. 2014-02-01; 20.2: 143-51.
Broadly neutralizing hemagglutinin stalk-specific antibodies require FcγR interactions for protection against influenza virus in vivo
DiLillo DJ, Tan GS, Palese P, Ravetch JV
PMID: 24412922
Journal of virology. 2012-06-01; 86.11: 6179-88.
A pan-H1 anti-hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody with potent broad-spectrum efficacy in vivo
Tan GS, Krammer F, Eggink D, Kongchanagul A, Moran TM, Palese P
PMID: 22491456
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2007-04-24; 104.17: 7229-34.
The dynein light chain 8 binding motif of rabies virus phosphoprotein promotes efficient viral transcription
Tan GS, Preuss MA, Williams JC, Schnell MJ
PMID: 17438267

Genomics of Zika Virus

Investigating the genomics of Zika virus throughout the Americas

Genomics of West Nile Virus

Sequencing West Nile virus genomes isolated in the United States

Genomics of Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Sequencing clinical isolates of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in various locations

Genomics of Influenza A and Influenza B Viruses

Sequencing Influenza genomes isolated from various hosts and locations

Genomics of Rotavirus

Sequencing Rotavirus genomes isolated from around the world

Innovative Research Programs - Viral Genomics
National Immunization Awareness Day

Top scientists join forces to study leading theory behind long COVID

Several JCVI scientists will be contributing to the newly launched Long Covid Research Initiative — a collaboration of researchers, clinicians, and patients working to rapidly study and treat long Covid.

Press Release

Omicron and Beta variants evade antibodies elicited by vaccines and previous infections, but boosters help

Pregnancy also contributes to a reduced COVID-19 antibody response


Fighting Back Against Flu